Inclusive Cities

As the world’s population has increased, so has the sizes of its cities. This does not particularly refer to the area cities occupy, but rather the number of people living in cities. Though cities only take up about 2 percent of the land on Earth, they consume over 60 percent of global energy consumption and contribute to 70 percent of the economy (GDP), global waste, and greenhouse gas emissions. City populations are diverse, generally including many cultures, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Unfortunately, inequities are frequently apparent among city populations as some citizens are not allowed the same opportunities as others due to circumstances often beyond their control. Continue reading

Development Theory

Development Studies emerged in an intellectual and political context in the 1960s and has become an integral part of everyday undertakings around the world. More of a subject than a discipline, Development Studies focus on development and create cross-disciplinary insights into the field. There are many different views of development, such as a long-term process of structural societal transformation and short-to-medium term outcomes of desirable targets. It is important to keep both perspectives in mind when attempting to define development. Continue reading

Grand Challenges

Despite the constant improvement of science and technology and social development, some monumental problems defy solution. These grand challenges can be social, such as inclusivity and equality, technical, like cures for cancer and finding new energy sources, or both. Tom Kalil, formerly of the White House’s Office of Science and Technology Policy described grand challenges as “ambitious but achievable.” Grand challenges should be measurable with defined targets and indicators. Their goals should motivate people, inspire individuals to spend a significant proportion of their lives working to solve these complex issues. Continue reading