Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Disaster Risk Management (DRM) are both essential to minimizing adverse effects from disasters. DRR is a systematic approach to identifying, assessing and reducing the risks of disaster, while DRM involves the application of these DRR policies and strategies in order to prevent new disaster risks, reduce existing disaster risks, and manage residual risks. As we discussed in class, it is imperative to implement inclusive DRR and DRM. Inclusive DRR and DRM take into consideration the needs of all inhabitants of an area when it comes to a disaster. It is especially important in times of disaster that those who are most vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, are being accounted for and that there is a plan to keep them safe.
The United Nations has held three World Conferences on Disaster Risk Reduction every. The most recent conference was held in Sendai, Japan in March 2015. At this conference, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted. This framework outlines seven targets and four action priorities to prevent new disasters and reduce existing disaster risks, and “aims to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries over the next 15 years.” (Sendai Framework) This Framework is one of the most inclusive global frameworks on disaster risk reduction, and the conference itself is seen as a ‘gold standard’ for an accessible UN conference.
The Dhaka Conference on Disability and Disaster Risk Management was held from the 12th to 14th of December 2015 to identify concrete actions to take to launch the Sendai Framework and ensure that persons with disabilities are able to participate and contribute meaningfully in all its processes. At this conference, the Dhaka Declaration on Disability and Disaster Risk Management was adopted, which recognized that “disability is part of human diversity and person This diversity and varied requirements need to be considered in all aspects of Disaster Risk Management (DRM).” This declaration is such an important one because it acknowledges the need to consider persons with disabilities in disaster risk management and reduction processes. This is especially relevant and necessary as climate change continues to pose great disaster risks; and persons with disabilities are predicted to be disproportionately affected by it as they make up 20 percent of the population of the poorest people in the world (Dhaka Declaration).
Sendai Framework: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/43291